What is the difference between dynamic microphones and condenser microphones?

The vibrating unit of a moving coil microphone (i.e. the diaphragm and the attached moving coil) has a greater weight than a ribbon or the membrane foil of a condenser microphone.

Getting this higher mass to vibrate (which is necessary for sound conversion) requires more energy from the acoustic signal than for lighter ribbons or foils.

In addition, a heavy diaphragm follows a complex audio signal more slowly than a lighter diaphragm.

What now initially sounds like a reason for favouring ribbon and condenser microphones over moving coil microphones can, however, be extremely helpful in many applications: a well-designed moving coil microphone can often suppress background noise on a stage (other instruments, monitor loudspeakers, etc.) better than a corresponding condenser microphone model. (Apart from very few exceptions), dynamic microphones do not need any supply voltage and are often mechanically somewhat more robust. In general, it can be said that a very good condenser microphone is better than a dynamic microphone for reproducing sounds neutrally.

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